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Friday, December 7

  1. page Water hyacinth edited ... Distribution: {} Water hyacinth distribution in …
    {} Water hyacinth distribution in the United States and Canada
    {}{} Water hyacinth
    {} Water hyacinth seeds
    {} Inflated petioles of Water hyacinth that help with flotation
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  2. page Brazilian Pepper Tree edited {BRZ Pepper.jpg} Sch…
    {BRZ Pepper.jpg}
    Schinus Molle
    Brazilian Peppertree
    Brazilian Peppertree, Schinus Molle, is a shrubby tree with narrow spiky leaves that grows 4 to 10 m tall (Taylor, 2005) and in some cases up to 15 meters high, which is the highest in its genus (Goldstein and Coleman, 524). The leaves are long and slender, pinnately compounded, and alternating. It has small uni sexual flowers that grow in panicles at the end of the branches which also bear the fruit, which are drupes (Goldstein and Coleman, 524)
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    9:41 am

Wednesday, December 5

  1. page Coca edited ... According to archaeological evidence, coca has been chewed for use as a mild stimulant since a…
    According to archaeological evidence, coca has been chewed for use as a mild stimulant since around 3000 BC. The Incas took control of Peru and took over the country's coca production. Later, when the conquistadores arrived in South America from Spain, coca was banned by the Catholic Church. The Spanish government decided to regulate coca instead because it was useful to keep their slaves working in the mines with little nourishment (Wicked Plants, 28).
    In 1961, The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs listed cocaine as one of many drugs that can be abused, and from then on international bodies such as the UN have fought to eliminate its use as much as possible (Transnational Institute). More recently, South American countries have moved to reduce the negative stigma toward its use in the countries from which it originated for traditional uses and reduce the international attempt to eradicate its use. "From Bolivia's point of view, the international community holds in its hands a historic opportunity to correct a misconception regarding coca leaf chewing by eliminating both paragraphs of the Single Convention" (UN Drug Control).
    in 1971 (NPR).(Timeline). Cocaine, along
    United States. Some government actions related to the War on Drugs are Reagan's Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986, which provided $1.7 billion for drug prevention and George W. Bush's creation of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) and appointment of William Bennet as the first "drug czar" in 1989.
    Human uses of Coca
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  2. page Political & Historical Plants edited ... Political and Historical Plants {Empire of plants.jpg} Plants Today, most of us take thes…
    Political and Historical Plants
    {Empire of plants.jpg}
    PlantsToday, most of us take these plants for granted as part of our everyday lives. We drink coffee with sugar, wear cotton shirts, ride bikes with rubber tires, eat chocolate and spicy food, maybe take codeine for pain. Beyond day to day practical uses, plants have truly changed the
    as the environment.Thereenvironment. There are hundreds
    They have been included among the causes of war, like for the American Civil War, they have led to regime change when political leaders were assassinated by poisoning (a form of murder used frequently in the ancient civilizations), propelled the slave trade and the Industrial Revolution, enabled the beginning of the birth of the United States and powered colonial expansion. The same plants continue to play a major role on the global stage. They are at the heart of many post-colonial economies, exploited by developed economies, a significant player in deforestation, and a stimulant for sustainability.
    Today, most of us take these plants for granted as part of our everyday lives. We drink coffee with sugar, wear cotton shirts, ride bikes with rubber tires, eat chocolate and spicy food, maybe smoke cigarettes or take codeine as a painkiller. Plants have significant power, impacting economics, politics and ethics, society and culture, colonialism, and the military.
    Plants In Developing Medicine
    form of healthcare known to mankind. Herbs have beenhealthcare, being used by
    civilization. Primitive humansman observed and
    of plants, using them forproviding food, clothing,
    and error. With time, each tribe would add the the medical herbs in their area to its knowledgeable, developing well-defined herbal pharmacopeias ('Herb Palace').
    derived from plants.plants ('Herb Palace'). Some are
    Without doubt, the history of herbal origins is intertwined with modern medicine. Many drugs listed as conventional medications derived from plants. Salicylic acid, was originally derived from white willow bark and the meadowsweet plant. Vincristine,which is used to treat certain types of cancer, comes from periwinkle. Even today, morphine, the most important alkaloid of the opium poppy, remains the standard measure of synthetic pain relievers.
    Plants as Food
    of early farms.farms (Laws). Barley and
    {sugars.jpg} Refined sugar is a food substance that facilitated the enslavement of millions of Africans and people of the Caribbean for purely economic reasons, and is now causing serious health concerns for many developed nations. Unlike slaves working on cotton and tobacco farms, sugarcane pickers had to work much faster. This caused the life expectancy for workers in the sugarcane fields to be half that of those who worked in the tobacco fields. Sugarcane originated in New Guinea and made its way west, due to the fact that Europeans found it to be particularly attractive as a sweetner. It thus became an extremely lucrative commodity in certain marketplaces. The Caribbean Islands, particularly Barbados, Jamaica, Cuba, Haiti, and Grenada because the main locations for growing and processing the sugar plant. Sugar would then be sold primarily in European markets. The introduction of modern refined sugar began around the 16th century, allowing the slave trade associated with this product to last for 300 years (until around the 1850s), and leave a legacy of crime and wrong-doing that affects politics even today. Now, in a turn of events, an abundance of sugar and sugary products in the western world has led to significant health difficulties, including serious issues such as obesity and diabetes.
    English in 1657.1657 (Laws). In the
    These examples of plants and food are but a small percentage of the many different ones that have impacted history. Understanding this connection will only broaden our knowledge of both plants and history, and help us to anticipate the future.
    Laws, Bill. Fifty Plants that Changed the Course of History. Buffalo: Firefly Books, 2010. Print.
    Some Historical and Political Figures Killed by Plants
    The first person many people think of that was killed by a plant is Socrates. He was put to death by being ordered to drink Hemlock. Many figures throughout history, especially political figures in the ancient civilizations, were either executed or assassinated this way. Some of the many, many others are below, along with the plants that killed them:
    Emperor Claudius of Rome- murdered by mushrooms, by his own wife Agrippina (she had killed several of his rivals this way, as well).
    Cleopatra- considered henbane and belladonna for her suicide, although she decided on an asp bite to get the job done.
    to do aw {}away with their enemies ('Gale Encyclopedia of Espionage and Intelligence').
    The Death
    Taken from with their enemies. No
    one knows
    The rosaceae plant family is used as the biochemical component for cyanide. This means they use things such as apple, cherry, peach, and plum seeds to help develop cyanide.
    with an umbrella.
    [taken from the Gale
    umbrella ('Gale Encyclopedia of Espionage and Intelligence, seen at]
    In Sum,sum, plants' historical
    Food, including migration due to famine
    Wars and economic strife
    {} From
    "Biochemical Assassination Weapons." Gale Encyclopedia of Espionage and Intelligence. Answers. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. <>.
    Hirst, Kris K. "" Web. 23 Nov. 2012. <>.
    "History of Herbal Medicine." Herb Palace. Chong's Health Care Enterprise, Inc., 17 2004. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. <>.
    Laws, Bill. Fifty Plants that Changed the Course of History. Buffalo: Firefly Books, 2010. Print.

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    11:09 am
  3. page Coca edited ... "Erythroxylum coca Lam." Natural Resources Conservation Institute. USDA. 27 Nov. 201…
    "Erythroxylum coca Lam." Natural Resources Conservation Institute. USDA. 27 Nov. 2012.
    "Poisonous plants: Coca." ThinkQuest. 2 December 2012.

    Stewart, Amy. Wicked Plants. New York: Algonquin Books, 2009. Print.
    "Timeline: America's War on Drugs." NPR. 27 Nov. 2012.
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  4. page Coca edited ... {imagen_hoja_coca_06.jpg} Growing coca plant ( ... throughou…
    Growing coca plant (
    throughout history. The plantThis bush is native
    Genus Erythroxylum P. Br.
    Species Erythroxylum coca Lam.
    the Erythroxylaceae family:family (about 250 total):
    Erythroxylum areolatum (swamp-redwood)
    Erythroxylum brevipes (brisselet)
    (Colombian coca) - also contains cocaine
    Erythroxylum rotundifolium (ratwood)
    Erythroxylum rufum (rufous false cocaine)
    ( (
    Geographic Distribution
    late 1800s. Today it is grown in subtropical locations as well as South Asia, but the majority of coca plants are still located in western South America.
    The coca leaf itself is a "harmless and mild stimulant comparable to coffee... and suppresses hunger, thirst, pain and fatigue," but at the same time, you cannot have cocaine without the coca leaf (UN Drug Control). This has led to a significant amount of controversy because millions of people who are native to the Andean region use the coca leaf on a daily basis and it has been part of their culture for thousands of years. In some parts of South America it is even a part of their religious rituals (UN Drug Control). The UN has attempted to prohibit the leaf altogther, including chewing the leaf and the production of cocaine.
    Drug Control). It is still used in medicine today - novocaine used by dentists is actually a derivative of cocaine (Poisonous Plants).
    {Cokerange_lowres.jpg} Humans
    used frequently. Overdoses can lead to seizures and breathing and cardiac problems. Cocaine can also lead to hallucinations and is known for causing birth abnormalities if the drug is used by pregnant women (Poisonous Plants).
    Coca has also been used in drinks such as tea and the original formula for Coca Cola (Wicked Plants). "In 1903 it was removed and a decocainized coca extract is one of the flavouring ingredients" (UN Drug Control).
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  5. page Coffee edited ...…
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